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  SAE J431 Automotive Gray Iron Castings  
 

SAE J431 automotive gray iron casting, iron grades, hardness, reference grades and chemical composition.

Iron Grades—Iron grades and their t/h lower limit requirements are shown in Table 1.

TABLE 1—IRON GRADES

Grade

Test Bar t/h Ratio Lower Limit (1)
MPa/MPa (2)

Test Bar t/h Ratio Lower Limit (1)
psi/HB (3)(4)

G7

0.070

100

G9

0.090

128

G10

0.100

142

G11

0.110

156

G12

0.120

171

G13

0.130

185

1.

Statistically defined

2.

Both tensile and hardness in MPA units

3.

For reference only. The MPa/MPa SI metric values are primary.

4.

Units of HB are kgf per mm2 .

 

Hardness Grades—Hardness grades and their required lower hardness limits are shown in Table 2.

TABLE 2—HARDNESS GRADES

 

Casting Hardness Lower Limit(1)

Casting Hardness Lower Limit(1)

Grade

MPa (2)

HB(3)

H10

1000

102

H11

1100

112

H12

1200

122

H13

1300

133

H14

1400

143

H15

1500

153

H16

1600

163

H17

1700

173

H18

1800

184

H19

1900

194

H20

2000

204

H21

2100

214

H22

2200

224

H23

2300

235

H24

2400

245

1.

Statistically Defined.

2.

Hardness in MPa = HB multiplied by 9.80665.

3.

Units of HB are kgf per mm2 .

Casting Grades—Combination of iron grade, hardness grade, and special requirement designation, if any, defines casting grade. A partial list of casting grades in common production and use, identified as reference grades and considered standard, is given in Table 4 with current and previous SAE designations. Other combinations of iron grade and hardness grade which are established in production and use or become so in the course of application development, or in accordance with 3.5 and 5.5.3, are also considered standard.

TABLE 4—REFERENCE GRADES (1)

SAE Casting Grade

Previous SAE Designation (2)

G9H12

G1800

G9H17

G2500

G10H18

G3000

G11H18

G3000

G11H20

G3500

G12H21

G4000

G13H19

G4000

G7H16 c

G1800 h(3)

G9H17 a

G2500 a

G10H21 c

G3500 c

G11H20 b

G3500 b

G11H24 d

G4000 d

1.

Established in production and use and having near equivalents with previous SAE designations.

2.

Equivalency based on tensile strength in 30 mm diameter test bars. See Table A4.

3.

The h suffix was previously used to designate both t/h and carbon require-ments for this grade.

 

Chemical Composition

Typical base composition ranges generally employed for the iron grades are shown in Table A1. The base composition does not include alloys such as Cu, Cr, Mo, Ni, or others which may be added for hardness or t/h control, or to meet mandatory composition limits of special irons given in Table 3 of the main body of this document.

 

TABLE A1—TYPICAL BASE COMPOSITIONS

Iron

Previous

 

 

 

Sulfur

Phosphorus

C. E.(1)

Grade

Designation

Carbon

Silicon

Manganese

Max.

max

(Approx.)

G7

G1800h

3.50 - 3.70

2.30 - 2.80

0.60 - 0.90

0.14

0.25

4.35 - 4.55

G9

G2500

3.40 - 3.65

2.10 - 2.50

0.60 - 0.90

0.12

0.25

4.15 - 4.40

G10

G3000

3.35 - 3.60

1.90 - 2.30

0.60 - 0.90

0.12

0.20

4.05 - 4.30

G11

G3000

3.30 - 3.55

1.90 - 2.20

0.60 - 0.90

0.12

0.10

4.00 - 4.25

G12

G3500

3.25 - 3.50

1.90 - 2.20

0.60 - 0.90

0.12

0.10

3.95 - 4.20

G13

G4000

3.15 - 3.40

1.80 - 2.10

0.70 - 1.00

0.12

0.08

3.80 - 4.05

1.

C. E. (Carbon Equivalent) = %C + (1/3) %Si.

 

For automotive ductile iron grade, please refer to SAE J434.

For comparison with the ASTM A48 grades, please refer to our Comparison Table for Gray Iron Casting Grades.

 

 

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