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The Glossary of Foundry and Casting

To help metal casting buyers and sellers to understand more about metal casting and foundry operation terms. All terms have been arranged in alphabetical order.

A-B  C-D-E  F-G-H-I  J-K-L-M-N  O-P-Q-R-S-T  U-V-W-X-Y-Z

Abrasion Resistance
Degree of resistance of a material to abrasion or wear.

A substance that hastens a reaction usually acting as a catalyst; as used in sand additive resins.

Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)
A quality level established on a prearranged system of inspection using samples selected at random.

Acid Brittleness (Picking brittleness)
Lack of ductility, induced in steel when it is pickled in dilute acid to remove scale - commonly attributed to the absorption of hydrogen. See Ductility.

Acid Melting
Melting in a furnace with refractory material that has an acid reaction. Material may be silica, sand, siliceous rock, or silica brick.

Acid Process
A steel making method using an acid refractory-lined (usually silica) furnace. Neither sulfur nor phosphorus is removed.

Acid Steel
Steel melted in a furnace which has an acid bottom and lining, under a predominantly siliceous slag.

Adapti Investment Casting Process
A lost wax process employing one of three methods; centrifugal, vacuum or gravity-pouring casting. See Investment Casting.

Addition Agent
Any material added to a charge of molten metal in bath or ladle to bring alloy to specifications. A reagent added to the plating bath. See Alloy, Ladle.

Any material added to molding sand for reasons other than bonding or improvement of bond is considered an additive. Bonds can be of varying types: carbonaceous (sea coal, pitch, fuel oil, graphite, gilsonite); cellulose (wood flour, cereal hulls); fines (silica flour, iron oxide, fly ash); cereals (corn flour, dextrine, sugar); and chemical (boric acid, sulfur, ammonium compounds, diethylene glycol). See Sea Coal.

Adeline Steelmaking Process
Method of producing a precision casting of steel or steel alloys using aluminolthermic process and lost wax, followed by centrifugal action. See Lost Wax Process.

ADI - Austempered Ductile Iron
A very high strength, high ductility, iron grade created through heat treating. See Ductility.

AFS Fineness Number
Approximately the number of meshes per inch of a sieve that just would pass the sand sample if its grains were uniform in size. In other words, it is the average of the grains in the sand sample. See American Foundrymen's Society.

AFS Tests
A number of standard tests determined by American Foundrymen's Society to evaluate molding and core sands. See Core Sand, Molding Sand.

Age Hardening
Hardening by aging, usually after rapid cooling or cold working. See Precipitation Hardening.

A change in properties of metals and alloys which occurs slowly at room temperature and will proceed rapidly at higher temperatures. A change in the metal or alloy by which its structure recovers from an unstable condition produced by quenching, quench aging, or by cold working, strain aging. The change in structure consists. The change in properties is often, but not always, due to a phase change, precipitation, but never involves a change in chemical composition of the metal or alloy. See Age Hardening, Precipitation Hardening.

Air Control Equipment
Any device used to regulate the volume, pressure, or weight of air.

Air-Dried (Dry)
A core or mold dried in air, without application of heat. See Core, Mold.

Air Furnace
A form of reverberatory furnace for melting ferrous and nonferrous metals and alloys. Flame from fuel burning at one end of the hearth passes over the bath to the stack at the opposite end of the furnace. Heat also is reflected from the roof and side walls.

Air Hardening
Full hardening of a metal or alloy during cooling in air or other gaseous medium from a temperature above its transformation range.

Air Injection Machine
An early type of die casting machine in which air pressure acting directly on the surface of molten metal in a closed gooseneck forces the metal into the die.

Air Quenching
Accelerated cooling of alloy in an air stream from temperatures above the Ac3 temperature. See Ac3.

Air Scale
Scale left on ferrous metal in processing, usually from heating in presence of air.

Air Setting
The property of some materials to take a permanent set at normal air temperature. Examples are gypsum slurry, investment molding materials, core and mold washes, etc. See Core, Mold.

Air blasting
A cleaning operation, as cleaning sand from molds.

Air-Hardening Steel
A steel containing sufficient alloy to fully harden during cooling in air. Typically this term is restricted to steels being able to harden in sections of about 2 inches (51 mm) or more.

Airless Blast Cleaning
A process whereby the abrasive material is applied to the object being cleaned by centrifugal force generated by a rotating-vane-type wheel.

Alkaline Derusting
An electrical process for derusting steel, cast iron and other ferrous alloys without using heat.

Allowance (Tolerance)
In a foundry, the clearance specified; difference in limiting sizes, as minimum clearance or maximum interference between mating parts, as computed arithmetically.

A substance having metallic properties and composed of two or more chemical elements of which at least one is metal. A metallic material formed by mixing two or more chemical elements. Usually possess properties different from those of the components. As examples, Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc and Cast Iron contains iron, carbon and silicon. See Cast Iron.

Alloy Steel
Steel containing significant quantities of alloying elements other than carbon and the commonly accepted amounts of manganese, silicon, sulfur, and phosphorus.

Alloying Elements
Elements added to nonferrous and ferrous metals and alloys to changer their characteristics and properties.

Body-centered cubic type of pure iron stable below 1,670°F (910°C).

Alpha Martensite
A form or stage of martensite of somewhat arbitrary distinction, probably representing the least developed and most distorted stage in the transformation of austenite to martensite at ordinary temperatures. See Martensite.

Alpha Process
A shell molding and core-making method in which a thin resin-bonded shell is baked with a less expensive, highly permeable material. See Shell Molding.

Alternating Stress
Stress produced in a material by forces acting alternating in opposite directions.

Ames Portable Hardness Tester
The Rockwell penetration method of testing hardness of metals can be made with this tester by applying pressure to the penetrator by screw action. See Rockwell Hardness.

Analysis Line
In spectrographic analysis, the particular spectral line used in determining the concentration of an element.

Angle Testing
A method of ultrasonic testing using shear waves introduced from the surface of the material at approximately 45°F or °C.

The process of heating a metal and slowly cooling it, reducing the brittleness and increasing the strength of the metal. See Bright Annealing, Double Annealing.

Forming a conversion coating on a metal surface by electrolytic oxidation with the work forming the anode. This process is most frequently applied to aluminum.

Ant carburizing Compounds
Compounds applied to metallic surfaces to prevent surface carbonization.

Apparent Contraction
The net contraction of a casting dimension due to true metal contraction, mold wall movement and restraint during solidification and cooling. See Solidification.

ARD Process
A refinement of the precision casting process, using plastic patterns produced in automatic injection machines. See Casting, Pattern.

Argon Oxygen Decarburization (AOD)
A secondary refining process in which argon, oxygen and nitrogen are injected into a molten bath of steel. The AOD process improves metal cleanliness and thus gives superior mechanical properties.

Arnold's Fatigue Test
(Named after John Arnold), a test for fractures using 850 cyclic stress reverses per minute, recording the number of cycles required to produce fracture.

Arrestor, Dust
Equipment for removing dust from air.

Artificial Aging
An aging treatment above room temperature. See Aging, Age Hardening.

As Cast (As-Cast, u.m.)
Referring to metal which has not received finishing (beyond gate removal or sandblasting) or treatment of any kind including heat treatment after casting. Similarly as drawn as forged and as rolled. See Heat Treatment.

As-Cast Condition
Casting without subsequent heat treatment. See Casting, Heat Treatment.

Assembling (Assembly) Line
Conveyor system where molds or cores are assembled. See Core, Mold.

Atomic Probe Field Ion Microscopy (APFIM )
An analytical technique in which atoms are ionized by an electric field near a sharp specimen tip. The field then forces the ions to a fluorescent screen which shows an enlarged image of the tip and individual atoms are made visible.

Atmosphere, Furnace
Gases with which metal is in contact during melting or heat treating. See Heat Treating.

Atmosphere, Neutral
Furnace atmosphere which is neither oxidizing nor reducing can be made up of an inert gas e.g. argon, or the products of combustion.

Atmosphere, Oxidizing
Furnace atmosphere which gives off oxygen under certain conditions or where there is an excess of oxygen in the product of combustion, or the products of combustion are oxidizing to the metal being heated.

Atmosphere, Reducing
Furnace atmosphere which absorbs oxygen under suitable conditions or in which there is insufficient air to completely burn the fuel, or the product of combustion is reducing to the metal being heated.

Atmospheric Riser (Williams)
Blind riser that employs atmospheric pressure to aid feeding. Insertion of a small sand core into the riser provides a means for ingress of air into the interior of the riser, and forces the metal into the casting cavity. See Riser, Cavity, Mold or Die.

The face-centered-cubic phase of iron and steel, also referred to as gamma iron. In steel, a solid solution in which gamma iron is the solvent. See Gamma Iron.

Austenite Steel
Any steel containing sufficient alloy to produce a stable austenitic (gamma iron) crystalline structure at ambient temperatures. See Gamma Iron.

Usual reference is to an alloy steel or iron with structure at room temperature that is normally composed essentially of austenite.

Back (Backing) Sand
Sand between the facing sand and the flask. See Facing Sand, Flask.

Back draft
A reverse taper from the designed direction of draw from a pattern or corebox; prevents removal of a pattern from a mold without damage to the mold-tear ups. See Molds, Pattern.

Backing Board (Backing Plate)
A second bottom board where molds are opened.

Backing Sand
The bonding agent used as an additive to mold or core sand to impart strength or plasticity in a "green" or dry state. See Green Sand.

Baffle Plate
Plate or wall in a firebox or furnace to change direction of the flame.

Connection between crane and hook and ladle. See Ladle.

In steel, an acicular aggregate of ferrite and carbide, resulting from an isothermal transformation of austenite at a temperature below the pearlitic range and above Ms. See Austenite.

Heat in an oven to a low controlled temperature to remove gases or to harden a binder.

Baked Core
A core which has been heated through sufficient time and temperature to produce the desired physical properties attainable from its oxidizing or thermal-setting bindersas opposed to a green-sand core, which is used in the moist state. See Binder, Core, Green Sand.

Baked Permeability
Property of a molded mass of sand heated at a temperature above 230ƒ F until dry and cooled to room temperature, to permit passage of gases through it; particularly those generated during pouring of molten metal into a mold. See Mold.

Baked Strength
Compressive, shear, tensile or transverse strength of a mold sand mixture when baked at a temperature above 231ƒF (111ƒC) and then cooled to room temperature. See Molding Sand.

Ball Burnishing
A method of obtaining a high luster on small parts by rotating them in a wooden-lined barrel with water, burnishing soap, and stainless steel shot.

Band, Inside
A loose steel frame placed inside a removable flask to reinforce the sand at the parting line. See Flask, Parting Line.

Banking the Cupola
Method of keeping cupola hot and ready for immediate production of hot iron after an unexpected shutdown of several hours. Procedure is to drain all molten iron and slag from the cupola, place extra coke on the top charge, and open one or two tuyeres to supply a small natural draft to keep coke combustion going. See Coke, Cupola, Tuyeres.

The decarburized layer just beneath the scale resulting from heating steel in an oxidizing atmosphere.

Bar / Bars
Metal supports placed in a flask, usually the cope to reinforce sand. See Cope, Flask.

Bars (Cleats)
Ribs of metal or wood placed across the flask to help support the sand in the cope. See Cope.

Base Plate
A plate to which the pattern assemblies are attached and to which a flask is subsequently attached to form the mold container.

Basic Bottom or Lining (Furnace)
Inner lining and bottom of a melting furnace composed of materials having a basic reaction. Materials may be crushed burnt dolomite, magnesite, magnesite brick, or basic slag. See Manganese Briquets.

Basic Steel
Steel melted in a furnace with a basic bottom and lining under a predominantly basic slag.

A cavity on top of the cope into which metal is poured before it enters the sprue. See Cope, Sprue.

Amount or quantity of core or mold sand or other material prepared at one time.

Batch Oven
Oven use to bake a number of cores at one time.

Molten metal pool on the hearth of a furnace in a ladle or furnace. See Ladle.

A wooden bar or strip fastened to bottom or follow board for rigidity or to prevent distortion during ramming of the mold. See Ramming.

Designating or conforming to either of the scales used by the French chemist Antoine Baume in the gradation of his hydrometers for determining the specific gravity of liquids.

An ore of aluminum consisting of moderately pure hydrated alumna, Al2O3× 2H2O.

Half-round cavity in a mold, or half-round projection or molding on a casting.A single deposit of weld metal produced by fusion.

Beam and Sling
Tackle used in conjunction with a crane for turning over the cope or drag of a mold prior to assembly. See Cope, Drag.

Bed Charge
The charge of iron placed on the coke bed in a cupola. See Coke Bed, Cupola.

Bed Coke
Coke placed in the cupola well to support the following iron and coke charges.

Sinking a pattern down into the sand to the desired position and ramming the sand around it. See Ramming.

Bedding A Core
Resting an irregularly shaped core on a bed of sand for drying.

Bedding In
Sinking a pattern in to the sand by excavating a "bed" in which the pattern is placed for ramming up.

Method whereby drag may be rammed in the pit or flask without necessity of rolling over. Process used in production of heavy castings. See Drag, Ramming, Pit, Flask.

Beehive Coke
Coke which is produced in hemispherical ovens about 12 feet in diameter and charged through the top to form a layer of coal 18 to 24 inches deep. Coke is ignited and air for partial combustion is supplied over the top by doors around the bottom of the ovens. Air burns volatile matter released by coke and during the later stages of carbonization burns some 5% to 8% of the coke. See Coke.

A device operated with both hands, to produce a current of air. Some bellows are mechanically operated.

Frame support on which small molds are made.

Bench Molder
Man who makes small molds on a molder's bench. See Molding Bench.

Bench Rammer
A short rammer used by a bench molder. See Bench Molder.

A small core-blowing machine, utilizing a removable sand magazine and blow heat.

Bending Strength
Upper limit of normal stress of a beam at which fracture or excessive plastic deformation occurs.

A widely distributed, peculiar type of clay which is considered to be the result of devitrification and chemical alteration of the glassy particles of volcanic ash or tuff. Used in a foundry to bond sand.

Bernoulli's Theorem
A theorem which states that in a stream flowing without friction, the total energy in a given amount of the fluid is the same at any point in its path of flow.

Bessemer Process
Method of making steel by blowing air through molten pig or carbon-bearing iron contained in a suitable vessel which causes rapid oxidation of silicon, carbon, etc.

Casting, usually centrifugal, made of two different metals, fused together.

Binary Alloy
An alloy of two metals.

The bonding agent is a material used as an additive to mold or core sand to impart strength or plasticity in a "green" or dry state. May be cereal, oil, clay, resin, pitch, etc. See Green Sand.

Binder, Plastic (Resin)
Synthetic resin material used to hold grains of sand together in molds or cores; may be phenol formaldehyde or urea formaldehyde thermosetting types. See Cores, Molds.

Black Heart
American type of malleable iron. The normal fracture shows a velvety black appearance having a mouse-gray rim. See Malleable Iron.

Black Lead
A natural form of graphite used for sleeking green sand molds, or applied in a water suspension to skin dried molds. Graphite for facing molds and cores. See Cores, Green Sand.

Blackening Scab
A form of casting defect related to an improper coating rather than to the sand.

American type of malleable iron. The normal fracture has a medium gray outer rim and a very black interior. See Malleable Iron.

Carbonaceous material for coating mold or core surfaces.

Blacking Carbon
Carbonaceous materials such as plumbago, graphite or powdered coke usually mixed with a binder and frequently carried in suspension in water or other liquid; used as thin facing applied to surfaces of molds or cores to improved casting finish. See Plumbago.

Blacking Hole
Irregular-shaped surface cavities in a casting containing carbonaceous matter. Caused by spilling off of the blacking from the mold surface.

Blacking Scab
A casting defect formed by blacking flaking off due to sand expansion and being retained in or on the surface of the metal.

Air driven into the cupola or furnace for combustion of fuel.

Blast Cleaning
Removal of sand or oxide scale from castings by the impinging action of sand, metal shot, or grit projected under air, water, or centrifugal pressure.

Blast Furnace
Closed-top-shaft furnace for producing pig iron from iron ore.

Blast Gate
Sliding plate in the cupola blast pipe to regulate the flow of air. See Cupola.

Blast Meter
Instrument indicates the volume or pressure, or both, of air passing through the blast pipe.

Blast Pressure
Pressure of air in blast pipe or wind belt of the cupola, depending on the location of indicating instrument. Usually given in ounces of water pressure.

Blasting (Blast Cleaning)
A process for cleaning or finishing metal objects by use of an air blast or centrifugal wheel that throws abrasive particles against the surface of the work pieces. Small, irregular particles of steel or iron are used as the abrasive in grit blasting, and steel or iron balls in shot blasting. See Blast Cleaning.

Bleed (Bleeder, Bleeding)
Molten metal oozing out of casting stripped or removed from the mold before solidification. See Solidification.

A defect wherein a casting lacks completeness due to molten metal draining or leaking out of some part of the mold cavity after pouring has stopped.

Blended Molding Sands
Naturally bonded molding sands which have been mixed or modified by the supplier to produce desirable properties. See Molding Sands.

Blended Sand
Mixture of sands of different grain sizes, clay content, etc., to produce one possessing characteristics more suitable for foundry use.

Blind Riser
A riser not opened to the atmosphere or does not reach to the exterior of the mold. See Riser.

A defect on the surface of a casting appearing as a shallow blow with a thin film of metal over it. In die-casting, it is a surface bubble or eruption caused by expansion of gas (usually as a result of heating) trapped within the die-casting or beneath the plating on the die-casting. See Blow, Die-Casting (noun).

Adding ferrosilicon or other deoxidizing agent to a refined heat to stop all oxidizing reactions.

Blocking the Heat
Stopping the carbon drop in production of steel by addition of deoxidizers such as silicomanganese, spiegel, or ferrosilicon and ferromanganese. See Spiegeleisen.

A casting defect due to trapping of gas in molten or partially molten metal. See Blister.

Blow Gun
A valve and nozzle attached to a compressed air line to blow loose sand or dirt from a mold or pattern. Also to apply wet blacking.

Blow Hole
A hole, or void, left in the casting caused by trapped air or gases. See Blow.

Blow Holes
The holes in the head plate or blow plate of a core-blowing machine through which sand is blown from the reservoir into the core box. The irregular shaped cavities with smooth walls produced in a casting when gas is entrapped during mold filling. The gas sources may be air, binder decomposition products or gases dissolved in the molten steel. See Blow.

Blow Pipe
A small pipe or tube through which the breath is blown to remove loose sand from small molds.

Blow Plate
Plate on the bottom of the sand hopper on core or mold blower machines which contains holes through which the sand is blown into the core box or flask. The plate containing the core sand entrance holes or blow holes used in open-face core boxes. See Core Box, Flask.

Machine or device for supplying air under pressure to the melting unit.

Blower, Core Or Mold
A machine or device using compressed air to inject sand into a core box or a flask. See Core Box, Flask.

Blowing Off A Mold
Cleaning a mold cavity with a stream of compressed air. See Cavity, Mold Cavity.

A small pipe or tube through which the breath is blown in removing loose sand from small mold cavities.

The formation of a thin film of oxide on polished steel to improve its appearance and protect its surface.

A riser or feeder, usually blind, to provide molten metal to the casting during solidification, thereby preventing shrinkage cavities. See Riser.

Bod (Bott) Stick
A stick or rod on which the bod is mounted to that it may be forced into the tap hole. See Tap Hole.

Bod, Bott
A piece of clay or other material to stop the flow of metal from the tap hole. See Tap Hole.

Body Core
The main core.

Agitation of a bath of metal by using steam or gas beneath its surface. May be deliberately induced by the addition of oxidizing material to a bath containing excess carbon. In the later case it is called a carbon boil and CO or CO2 are liberated.

(a) A bonding substance or bonding agents - any material other than water, which, when added to foundry sands, imparts bond strength. The overlapping of brick so as to give both longitudinal and transverse strength. (b) Cohesive material in sand. See Foundry Sand.

Bond Clay
Any clay suitable for use as a bonding material in molding sand. See Molding Sands.

Bond Strength
a property of foundry sand that offers resistance of foundry sand to deformation. See Foundry Sand.

Bonding Clay (Bonderise)
Any clay suitable for use as a bonding material.

Method of assembling or bringing together two halves of a core in a manner similar to closing a book. See Core.

Boric Acid
An inhibitor used in facing sand for magnesium-base and aluminum-base alloys high in magnesium to prevent reaction with moisture in the sand. See Facing Sand.

A machining method using single point tools on internal surfaces of revolution.

Metal in chip form resulting from machining operations.

One of the periodic chart elements. Its chemical symbol is B and its atomic weight is 10.82. In the form of borax and boric oxide, it is used as a flux in nonferrous metallurgy, and in the form of an alloy with other elements, as an addition to ferrous alloys. See Alloy, Flux.

Boron Trichloride
A product used for degasification of aluminum alloys.

Sloping of the cupola lining to form a smaller diameter just above the tuyeres. See Cupola, Tuyeres.

A projection of circular cross-section on a casting, usually intended for drilling and tapping for attaching parts. See Casting.

Boss (Pad)
A projection of circular cross-section on a casting. Usually intended for drilling and tapping for attaching parts. See Casting.

Bottom Board
The board that the mold rests on that supports the mold.

Bottom Doors
The doors that are underneath the cupola. See Cupola.

Bottom Pour Ladle
Ladle in which metal, usually steel, flows through a nozzle in the bottom. See Ladle, Bottom Pouring.

Bottom Pour Mold
A mold that is gated at the bottom.

Bottom Running Or Pouring
Filling of the mold cavity from the bottom by means of gates from the runner. See Gate, Runner, Mold Cavity.

Bottom Sand
Layer of molding sand rammed into place on the doors at the bottom of a cupola.

Strengthening strip, rib, or projection on a casting; usually used to prevent hot tearing. See Cracking Strip.

Branch Core
Part of a core assembly.

Branch Gate
Two or more gates leading into the casting cavity. See Cavity.

Copper-base alloy with zinc as the major alloying element. See Alloy.

Joining metals and alloys by fusion of nonferrous alloys with melting points above 800ƒ F, but lower than those of the materials being joined.

Breaker Ring
An intentionally weak ring within mass of a ring shell mold to be broken by force of casting shrinkage. Prevents hot tear stress. See Hot Tear.

Breakoff Notch
A thinner section of a gate or riser to facilitate and ensure clean breaking-off during the cleaning process of casting.

Area surrounding the tap hole of a melting furnace. See Tap Hole.

Coke or coal screenings.

A tendency to fracture without appreciable deformation.

Material adhering to the cupola wall which slows or prevents descent of the stock charges. See Cupola.

Bright Annealing
A process carried out usually in a controlled furnace atmosphere, so surface does not oxidize, remaining bright. See Annealing.

Brinell Hardness
The value of hardness of a metal on an arbitrary scale representing kg/mm2 determined by measuring the diameter of the impression made by a ball of given diameter applied under a known load. Values are expressed in Brinell Hardness Numbers, BHN. See BHN.

Brinell Hardness Number (BHN)
A measure of how hard a material is. The higher the hardness number, the harder the material. It is the most appropriate measurement scale for measuring hardness in iron castings.

Compact cylindrical or other shaped blocks formed of finely divided materials by incorporation of a binder, by pressure, or both. Materials may be ferroalloys, metal borings or chips, silicon carbide, etc.

Brittle Fracture
Fracture with little or no plastic deformation.

Smoothing machined holes or outside surfaces of castings by drawing pushing on or more broaches (special cutting tools) through the roughed out hole.

A copper-base alloy, using tin as the major alloying element. See Alloy.

Bulging of a large flat face of a casting; in investment casting, caused by dip coat peeling from the pattern. Defect on a casting surface, appearing as an indention resulting from an expansion scab. An indentation in a casting, resulting from expansion of the sand, may be termed the start of an expansion defect.

Built-Up Plate
A pattern plate of suitable material with the cope pattern mounted on or attached to one side with the drag on the other. See Matchplate.

Bulb Sponge
Rubber ball with a small piece of sponge inserted in the hole.

Bulk Density
The ratio of the weight of a material to its over-all volume (including any inherent porosity).

Machine for ramming sand in a flask by repeated jarring or jolting action.

Term used to designate the metal charge for a melting furnace. It is also used in cost accounting to indicate certain additional charges to be included in assessing costs in the different areas.

Buring In
See Penetration, Metal.

The process of cutting metal by a stream of fuel and oxygen. To permanently damage a metal or alloy by heating to cause either incipient melting or intergranular oxidation.

Burned Sand
Sand in which the binder or bond has been removed or impaired by contact with molten metal.

A misnomer usually indicating metal penetration into sand resulting in a mixture of sand and metal adhering to the surface of a casting. Sand adhering to the surface of the casting which is extremely difficult to remove. This condition may be due to soft molds, poor sand compaction, insufficient mould coating (graphite) paint, or high pouring temperature.

A device which mixes fuel and air intimately to provide perfect combustion when the mixture is burned. Types include acetylene, oil, gas, powdered coal, stoker, etc.

A misnomer usually indicating metal penetration into molding and core sand resulting in a mixture of metal and sand on a casting usually due to the metal penetrating into the sand. See Core Sand, Molding Sands.

Developing a smooth finish on a metal by tumbling or rubbing with a polished hand tool.

Usually refers to removal of the disposable wax or plastic pattern in the investment-molding process by heating the mold gradually to a sufficiently high temperature to consume any carbonaceous residues.

In shell molding, resin burned out too soon. See Shell Molding.

A sleeve, metallic or nonmetallic, usually removable or replaceable, which is placed in a body to resist wear, erosion, etc.

Butt Off
Operation performed at times to supplement ramming by jolting, either hand or air rammer. See Ramming.

Butt Rammer
The flat end of the molder's rammer. See Ramming.

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