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Ductile Iron and Gray Iron Exhaust Manifold
( Foundry in China)

Dandong Foundry has manufactured various ductile iron and gray iron exhaust manifolds in China. We have rich experience in casting production, machining, assembly and quality inspection. Our foundry has supplied cast iron exhaust manifolds for our aftermarket clients in USA, UK and Australia for many years.

Ductile Iron Exhaust Manifolds, product photos

Advantages of ductile iron exhaust manifolds:
1. High tensile strength and elongation, so strong enough for tough working condition.

Disadvantages of ductile iron exhaust manifolds:
1. High production costs, so caused high product prices, about 5% to 10% higher than gray iron manifolds.
2. More casting defects, so caused high defective rate, difficult for foundry production.

The followings are the manifolds made by ductile iron:

 

The following list is showing the common ductile iron material grades for exhaust manifolds.

ISO

ISO 1083

400-15

450-10

500-7

400-18

China

GB 1348

QT400-18

QT450-10

QT500-7

USA

ASTM A536

60-40-18

60-42-10

70-50-05

65-45-12

Germany

DIN 1693

GGG40

GGG50

Austria

European

EN 1563

EN-GJS-400-15

EN-GJS-450-10

EN-GJS-500-7

EN-GJS-400-18

Japan

JIS G5502

FCD400

FCD450

FCD500

Italy

UNI 4544

GS370-17

GS400-12

GS500-7

France

NF A32-201

FGS370-17

FGS400-12

FGS500-7

UK

BS 2789

400/17

420/12

500/7

India

IS 1865

SG370/17

SG400/12

SG500/7

Spain

UNF

FGE38-17

FGE42-12

FGE50-7

Belgium

NBN 830-02

FNG38-17

FNG42-12

FNG50-7

Australia

AS 1831

300-17

500-7

400-12

Sweden

SS 14 07

0717-02

0727-02

Norway

NS11 301

SJK-400.3

SJK-500

SJK-400

Gray Iron Exhaust Manifolds, product photos

Many types of exhaust manifolds were produced by gray cast iron. This is because of their some advantages.

Advantages of gray iron exhaust manifolds:
1. Low production costs, so low prices.
2. Less shrinkage defects, so low defective rates. Foundry’s favor.

Disadvantages of gray iron exhaust manifolds:
1. Low tensile strength and elongation, so not tough enough for severe working condition.
2. Require the manifolds have enough wall thickness; otherwise, it will be too fragile.

The following is the exhaust manifold made by gray cast iron:

The following list is showing the common gray iron material grades for exhaust manifolds.

ISO

ISO 185

200

250

China

GB 9439

HT200

HT250

USA

ASTM A48

NO.30

NO.35

Germany

DIN 1691

GG20

GG25

Austria

European

EN 1561

EN-GJL-200

EN-GJL-250

Japan

JIS G5501

FC200

FC250

Italy

UNI 5007

G20

G25

France

NF A32-101

FGL200

FGL250

UK

BS 1452

200

250

India

IS 210

FG200

FG260

Spain

UNF

FG20

FG25

Belgium

NBN 830-01

FGG20

FGG25

Australia

AS 1830

T220

T260

Sweden

SS 14 01

O120

O125

Norway

NS11 100

SJG200

SJG250


Foundry production processes for iron manifolds

There are two types of foundry processes for cast iron manifolds:

1. Green sand shell and pre-coated resin sand cores.

This casting process could also be called as green sand casting process; it could be used for making not very complex manifolds, especially for gray iron manifolds. The production costs are lower, but the surface quality of castings is not very good. There will be more surface defects.

2. Pre-coated resin sand shell and cores.

This casting process is also called as shell molding process. It could be used for making complex manifolds. The production cost is higher, but there will be less surface defects. If the foundry could control the production very well, its surface quality will be good.

Frequent quality problems for cast iron manifolds

1. Cold lap is common defect for ductile iron exhaust manifolds made by shell molding process. The foundry could solve this problem by improving the gating design, molten iron temperature, or warm keeping methods.

2. Surface sand holes, pin holes, air holes. These defects are inevitable sometimes. For some defects on the surface, some filler or welding could be used, but for some deeper defects, just scrap them.

3. Shrinkage defect is very harmful for manifolds, you may see some defects on the surface, but actually, it could go inside until penetration.

4. Mismatch problem. The manifolds will be assembled with some pads, so if there is this problem, it will affect the assembly.

How to guarantee the manifolds quality for aftermarket?

1. 100% inspection before packing for all defects and problems. Once the manifolds were packed, there will be no method to find the problems. The products will be sent to final users, so will cause reputation damage. Therefore, 100% inspection by specified inspector will be the only method to guarantee its quality.

 

2. Other repairing and inspection works must be performed accordingly, such as mechanical and chemical inspection, repairing for small problems and good packing method. 

 

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